Visa Dispute Guide

Your comprehensive guide to reason codes, modifiers, time limits, and compelling evidence for Visa transactions.

Visa Reason Codes (Expire April 2018)


Visa uses the four main categories to organize its reason codes: Authorization, Card Member Disputes (which Visa refers to as Consumer Disputes), Fraud, and Processing Errors.

Code Description Transaction Modifers Category How to Win
57 Fraudulent Multiple Transactions None Fraud
62 Counterfeit Transaction None Fraud
81 Fraud – Card-Present Environment Airline Transaction, Below-Floor Limit, CP and Key-Entered, Digital Goods Merchant assigned MCC 5815-5818 Fraud
83 Fraud – Card-Absent Environment Airline Transaction, CP and Key-Entered, Digital Goods Merchant assigned MCC 5815-5818, Secure Electronic Commerce Transaction (US Domestic) Fraud
93 Visa Fraud Monitoring Program None Fraud
70 Card Recovery Bulletin or Exception File None Authorization
71 Declined Authorization None Authorization
72 No Authorization Authorization Data Invalid, Exceeds Floor Limit Authorization
73 Expired Card None Authorization
78 Service Code Violation None Authorization
74 Late Presentment None Point-of-Interaction Error
76 Incorrect Currency or Transaction Code Credit Refund, DCC Selected by Merchant, DCC Unknown/Refused, Incorrect Transaction Code, Transaction Currency Mismatch Point-of-Interaction Error
77 Non-Matching Account Number None Point-of-Interaction Error
80 Incorrect Transaction Amount or Account Number Transaction Amount Altered, Transaction Amount Incorrect Point-of-Interaction Error
82 Duplicate Processing ATM Transaction, Telephone Service Transaction – Unattended Cardholder-Activated Terminal Point-of-Interaction Error
86 Paid by Other Means None Point-of-Interaction Error
30 Services Not Provided or Merchandise Not Received Airline Transaction Consumer Disputes
41 Cancelled Recurring Transaction None Consumer Disputes
53 Not as Described or Defective Merchandise Counterfeit Merchandise, Misrepresented Terms of Sale, Not as Described Consumer Disputes
75 Transaction Not Recognized None Consumer Disputes
85 Credit Not Processed None Consumer Disputes
90 Non-Receipt of Cash or Load Transaction Value at ATM None Consumer Disputes

VCR Dispute Reason Codes (Effective April 2018)


Visa’s process introduces four dispute categories and associated numerical labels (Fraud – 10, Authorization – 11, Processing Errors – 12, Consumer Disputes – 13) under which the renamed reason codes will be placed.

Code Category Description How to Win
10.1 Fraud (10) EMV Liability Shift Counterfeit Fraud
10.2 Fraud (10) EMV Liability Shift Non-Counterfeit Fraud
10.3 Fraud (10) Other Fraud – Card Present Environment
10.4 Fraud (10) Other Fraud – Card Absent Environment
10.5 Fraud (10) Visa Fraud Monitoring Program
11.1 Authorization (11) Card Recovery Bulletin or Exception File
11.2 Authorization (11) Declined Authorization
11.3 Authorization (11) No Authorization
12.1 Processing Errors (12) Late Presentment
12.2 Processing Errors (12) Incorrect Transaction Code
12.3 Processing Errors (12) Incorrect Currency
12.4 Processing Errors (12) Incorrect Transaction Account Number
12.5 Processing Errors (12) Incorrect Transaction Amount
12.6 Processing Errors (12) Duplicate Processing or Paid by Other Means
12.7 Processing Errors (12) Invalid Data
13.1 Consumer Disputes (13) Services Not Provided or Merchandise Not Received
13.2 Consumer Disputes (13) Cancelled Recurring Transaction
13.3 Consumer Disputes (13) Not as Described or Defective Merchandise/Services
13.4 Consumer Disputes (13) Counterfeit Merchandise
13.5 Consumer Disputes (13) Misrepresentation of the purchased good and/or service
13.6 Consumer Disputes (13) Credit Not Processed
13.7 Consumer Disputes (13) Cancelled Merchandise/Services
13.8 Consumer Disputes (13) Original Credit Transaction Not Accepted
13.9 Consumer Disputes (13) Non-Receipt of Cash or Load Transaction Value at ATM

Visa Time Limits to Respond

Time limits are for the acquiring bank. Merchants will typically be given half the amount of time the acquiring bank is given to accomodate for the time they need to process internally. As of April 2018 the time to respond to a chargeback was reduced by 15 days from 45 to 30.

Retrieval Requests
0 days
from the date of Retrieval Request
Chargebacks
0 days
from the date of chargeback

Visa Transaction Modifiers

A transaction modifier (or modifier) represents specific circumstances associated with a card sale that change what compelling evidence is required to overturn the chargeback.

Airline Transaction

Applies to Reason Codes

How to Respond

  • Provide evidence showing that the cardholder name is included in the manifest for the departed flight and matches the cardholder name provided on the purchased itinerary

ATM Transaction

Applies to Reason Codes

How to Respond

  • Provide a copy of the ATM Cash Disbursement Transaction or Load Transaction record containing at least the following:
    • Account Number, Transaction time or sequential number identifying the individual Transactions, or the Indicator that confirms that the ATM Cash Disbursement or Load Transaction values were successful

Authorization Data Invalid

Applies to Reason Codes

How to Respond

  • Provide the V.I.P. System Authorization record and the clearing record of the first presentment

Below Floor Limit

Applies to Reason Codes

How to Respond

  • Provide an internal record or log with explanation of fields to prove that the transaction was a magnetic stripe-read transaction, a chip-initiated transaction, or a contactless transaction
  • For an Unattended Transaction, provide evidence of PIN or CDCVM

Counterfeit Merchandise

Applies to Reason Codes

How to Respond

  • Your response needs to include documentation to support your claim that the merchandise was not counterfeit

CP and Key-Entered

Applies to Reason Codes

How to Respond

  • Provide all of the following:
    • Evidence that all transactions occurred during the same stay, trip, or rental period
    • Show evidence of a valid imprint and signature, PIN, or CDCVM for the initial Card Present environment transaction

Credit Refund

Applies to Reason Codes

How to Respond

  • Provide an explanation of why a credit transaction was processed instead of a reversal or an adjustment

DCC Selected by Merchant

Applies to Reason Codes

How to Respond

  • Provide all of the following:
    • A copy of the transaction receipt
    • Certification confirming that Dynamic Currency Conversion was chosen by the cardholder and not by the merchant

DCC Unknown/Refused

Applies to Reason Codes

How to Respond

  • Ask your acquirer to provide certification that you are registered to offer Dynamic Currency Conversion and a copy of the transaction receipt showing your local currency

Digital Goods Merchant (MCC 5815-5818)

Applies to Reason Codes

How to Respond

  • The compelling evidence needed includes all of the following:
    • Evidence that the merchant has been successfully registered into and continues to participate in the Visa Digital Commerce Program
    • Evidence that the merchant is the owner of the operating system for the subject electronic device
    • Evidence that the account set up on the merchant’s website or application was accessed by the cardholder and has been successfully verified before or on the transaction date
    • Evidence that the disputed transaction used the same device and card as any previous transactions that were not disputed
    • Proof that the device ID number, IP address and geographic location, and name of device (if available) are linked to the cardholder profile on record at the merchant
    • Description of the merchandise or services and the date and time goods were purchased and successfully downloaded
    • Customer name linked to the customer profile on record at the merchant
    • Evidence that the customer password was re-entered on the merchant’s website or application at the time of purchase
    • Evidence that the merchant validated the card when the cardholder first linked the card to the customer profile on record at the merchant

Exceeds Floor Limit

Applies to Reason Codes

How to Respond

  • Provide all of the following:
    • The transaction receipt and certification of the date the transaction was initiated, completed
    • The dates, authorized amounts, and authorization codes of the approved authorizations

Incorrect Transaction Code

Applies to Reason Codes

How to Respond

  • Provide a transaction receipt or other record that proves that the transaction code was correct

Misrepresented Terms of Sale

Applies to Reason Codes

How to Respond

  • Your response needs to include documentation to prove that the terms of the sale of the goods or services were not misrepresented

Not as Described

Applies to Reason Codes

How to Respond

  • Provide any of the following:
    • Documentation to prove that the goods or service matched what was described
    • A rebuttal addressing the cardholder’s claims
    • Documentation to prove that the cardholder did not attempt to return the merchandise

Secure Electronic Commerce Transaction (US Domestic)

Applies to Reason Codes

How to Respond

  • Provide the Verified by Visa Authentication history log proving that the cardholder was authenticated

Telephone Service Transaction – Unattended Cardholder-Activated Terminal

Applies to Reason Codes

How to Respond

  • Provide documentation to demonstrate that the time of the call is different for each transaction

Transaction Amount Altered

Applies to Reason Codes

How to Respond

  • Supply documentation to prove one of the following:
    • The transaction receipt was not altered
    • The cardholder agreed to the altered amount
    • The merchant is permitted or required to alter the transaction amount

Transaction Amount Incorrect

Applies to Reason Codes

How to Respond

  • Provide a transaction receipt or other record to prove that the transaction amount or the account number was correct

Transaction Currency Mismatch

Applies to Reason Codes

How to Respond

  • Provide a transaction receipt or other record that proves that the transaction currency was correct

The Ultimate Dispute Management Resource

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